Custom Query class for Oracle.
Derives from: django.db.models.sql.query.Query

import datetime

from django.db.backends import util

# Cache. Maps default query class to new Oracle query class.
_classes = {}

def query_class(QueryClass, Database):
    Returns a custom django.db.models.sql.query.Query subclass that is
    appropriate for Oracle.

    The 'Database' module (cx_Oracle) is passed in here so that all the setup
    required to import it only needs to be done by the calling module.
    global _classes
        return _classes[QueryClass]
    except KeyError:

    class OracleQuery(QueryClass):
        def resolve_columns(self, row, fields=()):
            index_start = len(self.extra_select.keys())
            values = [self.convert_values(v, None) for v in row[:index_start]]
            for value, field in map(None, row[index_start:], fields):
                values.append(self.convert_values(value, field))
            return values

        def convert_values(self, value, field):
            from django.db.models.fields import DateField, DateTimeField, \
                 TimeField, BooleanField, NullBooleanField, DecimalField, Field
            if isinstance(value, Database.LOB):
                value = value.read()
            # Oracle stores empty strings as null. We need to undo this in
            # order to adhere to the Django convention of using the empty
            # string instead of null, but only if the field accepts the
            # empty string.
            if value is None and isinstance(field, Field) and field.empty_strings_allowed:
                value = u''
            # Convert 1 or 0 to True or False
            elif value in (1, 0) and isinstance(field, (BooleanField, NullBooleanField)):
                value = bool(value)
            # Convert floats to decimals
            elif value is not None and isinstance(field, DecimalField):
                value = util.typecast_decimal(field.format_number(value))
            # cx_Oracle always returns datetime.datetime objects for
            # DATE and TIMESTAMP columns, but Django wants to see a
            # python datetime.date, .time, or .datetime.  We use the type
            # of the Field to determine which to cast to, but it's not
            # always available.
            # As a workaround, we cast to date if all the time-related
            # values are 0, or to time if the date is 1/1/1900.
            # This could be cleaned a bit by adding a method to the Field
            # classes to normalize values from the database (the to_python
            # method is used for validation and isn't what we want here).
            elif isinstance(value, Database.Timestamp):
                # In Python 2.3, the cx_Oracle driver returns its own
                # Timestamp object that we must convert to a datetime class.
                if not isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
                    value = datetime.datetime(value.year, value.month,
                            value.day, value.hour, value.minute, value.second,
                if isinstance(field, DateTimeField):
                    # DateTimeField subclasses DateField so must be checked
                    # first.
                elif isinstance(field, DateField):
                    value = value.date()
                elif isinstance(field, TimeField) or (value.year == 1900 and value.month == value.day == 1):
                    value = value.time()
                elif value.hour == value.minute == value.second == value.microsecond == 0:
                    value = value.date()
            return value

        def as_sql(self, with_limits=True, with_col_aliases=False):
            Creates the SQL for this query. Returns the SQL string and list
            of parameters.  This is overriden from the original Query class
            to handle the additional SQL Oracle requires to emulate LIMIT
            and OFFSET.

            If 'with_limits' is False, any limit/offset information is not
            included in the query.

            # The `do_offset` flag indicates whether we need to construct
            # the SQL needed to use limit/offset with Oracle.
            do_offset = with_limits and (self.high_mark is not None
                                         or self.low_mark)
            if not do_offset:
                sql, params = super(OracleQuery, self).as_sql(with_limits=False,
                # `get_columns` needs to be called before `get_ordering` to
                # populate `_select_alias`.
                ordering = self.get_ordering()

                # Oracle's ROW_NUMBER() function requires an ORDER BY clause.
                if ordering:
                    rn_orderby = ', '.join(ordering)
                    # Create a default ORDER BY since none was specified.
                    qn = self.quote_name_unless_alias
                    opts = self.model._meta
                    rn_orderby = '%s.%s' % (qn(opts.db_table),
                        qn(opts.fields[0].db_column or opts.fields[0].column))

                # Ensure the base query SELECTs our special "_RN" column
                self.extra_select['_RN'] = ('ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY %s)'
                                            % rn_orderby, '')
                sql, params = super(OracleQuery, self).as_sql(with_limits=False,

                # Wrap the base query in an outer SELECT * with boundaries on
                # the "_RN" column.  This is the canonical way to emulate LIMIT
                # and OFFSET on Oracle.
                sql = 'SELECT * FROM (%s) WHERE "_RN" > %d' % (sql, self.low_mark)
                if self.high_mark is not None:
                    sql = '%s AND "_RN" <= %d' % (sql, self.high_mark)

            return sql, params

        def set_limits(self, low=None, high=None):
            super(OracleQuery, self).set_limits(low, high)
            # We need to select the row number for the LIMIT/OFFSET sql.
            # A placeholder is added to extra_select now, because as_sql is
            # too late to be modifying extra_select.  However, the actual sql
            # depends on the ordering, so that is generated in as_sql.
            self.extra_select['_RN'] = ('1', '')

        def clear_limits(self):
            super(OracleQuery, self).clear_limits()
            if '_RN' in self.extra_select:
                del self.extra_select['_RN']

    _classes[QueryClass] = OracleQuery
    return OracleQuery