import errno
import os
import warnings
from datetime import datetime

from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import SuspiciousFileOperation
from django.core.files import File, locks
from django.core.files.move import file_move_safe
from django.utils._os import abspathu, safe_join
from django.utils.crypto import get_random_string
from django.utils.deconstruct import deconstructible
from django.utils.deprecation import RemovedInDjango110Warning
from django.utils.encoding import filepath_to_uri, force_text
from django.utils.functional import LazyObject
from django.utils.inspect import func_supports_parameter
from django.utils.module_loading import import_string
from django.utils.six.moves.urllib.parse import urljoin
from django.utils.text import get_valid_filename

__all__ = ('Storage', 'FileSystemStorage', 'DefaultStorage', 'default_storage')

class Storage(object):
    A base storage class, providing some default behaviors that all other
    storage systems can inherit or override, as necessary.

    # The following methods represent a public interface to private methods.
    # These shouldn't be overridden by subclasses unless absolutely necessary.

    def open(self, name, mode='rb'):
        Retrieves the specified file from storage.
        return self._open(name, mode)

    def save(self, name, content, max_length=None):
        Saves new content to the file specified by name. The content should be
        a proper File object or any python file-like object, ready to be read
        from the beginning.
        # Get the proper name for the file, as it will actually be saved.
        if name is None:
            name =

        if not hasattr(content, 'chunks'):
            content = File(content)

        if func_supports_parameter(self.get_available_name, 'max_length'):
            name = self.get_available_name(name, max_length=max_length)
                'Backwards compatibility for storage backends without '
                'support for the `max_length` argument in '
                'Storage.get_available_name() will be removed in Django 1.10.',
                RemovedInDjango110Warning, stacklevel=2
            name = self.get_available_name(name)

        name = self._save(name, content)

        # Store filenames with forward slashes, even on Windows
        return force_text(name.replace('\\', '/'))

    # These methods are part of the public API, with default implementations.

    def get_valid_name(self, name):
        Returns a filename, based on the provided filename, that's suitable for
        use in the target storage system.
        return get_valid_filename(name)

    def get_available_name(self, name, max_length=None):
        Returns a filename that's free on the target storage system, and
        available for new content to be written to.
        dir_name, file_name = os.path.split(name)
        file_root, file_ext = os.path.splitext(file_name)
        # If the filename already exists, add an underscore and a random 7
        # character alphanumeric string (before the file extension, if one
        # exists) to the filename until the generated filename doesn't exist.
        # Truncate original name if required, so the new filename does not
        # exceed the max_length.
        while self.exists(name) or (max_length and len(name) > max_length):
            # file_ext includes the dot.
            name = os.path.join(dir_name, "%s_%s%s" % (file_root, get_random_string(7), file_ext))
            if max_length is None:
            # Truncate file_root if max_length exceeded.
            truncation = len(name) - max_length
            if truncation > 0:
                file_root = file_root[:-truncation]
                # Entire file_root was truncated in attempt to find an available filename.
                if not file_root:
                    raise SuspiciousFileOperation(
                        'Storage can not find an available filename for "%s". '
                        'Please make sure that the corresponding file field '
                        'allows sufficient "max_length".' % name
                name = os.path.join(dir_name, "%s_%s%s" % (file_root, get_random_string(7), file_ext))
        return name

    def path(self, name):
        Returns a local filesystem path where the file can be retrieved using
        Python's built-in open() function. Storage systems that can't be
        accessed using open() should *not* implement this method.
        raise NotImplementedError("This backend doesn't support absolute paths.")

    # The following methods form the public API for storage systems, but with
    # no default implementations. Subclasses must implement *all* of these.

    def delete(self, name):
        Deletes the specified file from the storage system.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a delete() method')

    def exists(self, name):
        Returns True if a file referenced by the given name already exists in the
        storage system, or False if the name is available for a new file.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide an exists() method')

    def listdir(self, path):
        Lists the contents of the specified path, returning a 2-tuple of lists;
        the first item being directories, the second item being files.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a listdir() method')

    def size(self, name):
        Returns the total size, in bytes, of the file specified by name.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a size() method')

    def url(self, name):
        Returns an absolute URL where the file's contents can be accessed
        directly by a Web browser.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a url() method')

    def accessed_time(self, name):
        Returns the last accessed time (as datetime object) of the file
        specified by name.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide an accessed_time() method')

    def created_time(self, name):
        Returns the creation time (as datetime object) of the file
        specified by name.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a created_time() method')

    def modified_time(self, name):
        Returns the last modified time (as datetime object) of the file
        specified by name.
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of Storage must provide a modified_time() method')

class FileSystemStorage(Storage):
    Standard filesystem storage

    def __init__(self, location=None, base_url=None, file_permissions_mode=None,
        if location is None:
            location = settings.MEDIA_ROOT
        self.base_location = location
        self.location = abspathu(self.base_location)
        if base_url is None:
            base_url = settings.MEDIA_URL
        elif not base_url.endswith('/'):
            base_url += '/'
        self.base_url = base_url
        self.file_permissions_mode = (
            file_permissions_mode if file_permissions_mode is not None
            else settings.FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS
        self.directory_permissions_mode = (
            directory_permissions_mode if directory_permissions_mode is not None

    def _open(self, name, mode='rb'):
        return File(open(self.path(name), mode))

    def _save(self, name, content):
        full_path = self.path(name)

        # Create any intermediate directories that do not exist.
        # Note that there is a race between os.path.exists and os.makedirs:
        # if os.makedirs fails with EEXIST, the directory was created
        # concurrently, and we can continue normally. Refs #16082.
        directory = os.path.dirname(full_path)
        if not os.path.exists(directory):
                if self.directory_permissions_mode is not None:
                    # os.makedirs applies the global umask, so we reset it,
                    # for consistency with file_permissions_mode behavior.
                    old_umask = os.umask(0)
                        os.makedirs(directory, self.directory_permissions_mode)
            except OSError as e:
                if e.errno != errno.EEXIST:
        if not os.path.isdir(directory):
            raise IOError("%s exists and is not a directory." % directory)

        # There's a potential race condition between get_available_name and
        # saving the file; it's possible that two threads might return the
        # same name, at which point all sorts of fun happens. So we need to
        # try to create the file, but if it already exists we have to go back
        # to get_available_name() and try again.

        while True:
                # This file has a file path that we can move.
                if hasattr(content, 'temporary_file_path'):
                    file_move_safe(content.temporary_file_path(), full_path)

                # This is a normal uploadedfile that we can stream.
                    # This fun binary flag incantation makes throw an
                    # OSError if the file already exists before we open it.
                    flags = (os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT | os.O_EXCL |
                             getattr(os, 'O_BINARY', 0))
                    # The current umask value is masked out by!
                    fd =, flags, 0o666)
                    _file = None
                        locks.lock(fd, locks.LOCK_EX)
                        for chunk in content.chunks():
                            if _file is None:
                                mode = 'wb' if isinstance(chunk, bytes) else 'wt'
                                _file = os.fdopen(fd, mode)
                        if _file is not None:
            except OSError as e:
                if e.errno == errno.EEXIST:
                    # Ooops, the file exists. We need a new file name.
                    name = self.get_available_name(name)
                    full_path = self.path(name)
                # OK, the file save worked. Break out of the loop.

        if self.file_permissions_mode is not None:
            os.chmod(full_path, self.file_permissions_mode)

        return name

    def delete(self, name):
        assert name, "The name argument is not allowed to be empty."
        name = self.path(name)
        # If the file exists, delete it from the filesystem.
        # Note that there is a race between os.path.exists and os.remove:
        # if os.remove fails with ENOENT, the file was removed
        # concurrently, and we can continue normally.
        if os.path.exists(name):
            except OSError as e:
                if e.errno != errno.ENOENT:

    def exists(self, name):
        return os.path.exists(self.path(name))

    def listdir(self, path):
        path = self.path(path)
        directories, files = [], []
        for entry in os.listdir(path):
            if os.path.isdir(os.path.join(path, entry)):
        return directories, files

    def path(self, name):
        return safe_join(self.location, name)

    def size(self, name):
        return os.path.getsize(self.path(name))

    def url(self, name):
        if self.base_url is None:
            raise ValueError("This file is not accessible via a URL.")
        return urljoin(self.base_url, filepath_to_uri(name))

    def accessed_time(self, name):
        return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getatime(self.path(name)))

    def created_time(self, name):
        return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getctime(self.path(name)))

    def modified_time(self, name):
        return datetime.fromtimestamp(os.path.getmtime(self.path(name)))

def get_storage_class(import_path=None):
    return import_string(import_path or settings.DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE)

class DefaultStorage(LazyObject):
    def _setup(self):
        self._wrapped = get_storage_class()()

default_storage = DefaultStorage()