##
## $Rev: 137 $
## $Release: 0.6.2 $
## copyright(c) 2007-2008 kuwata-lab.com all rights reserved.
##
## Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
## a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
## "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
## without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
## distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
## permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
## the following conditions:
##
## The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
## included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
##
## THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
## EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
## MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
## NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
## LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
## OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
## WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
##

"""Very fast and light-weight template engine based embedded Python.

   pyTenjin is similar to PHP or eRuby (embedded Ruby).
   * '<?py ... ?>' represents python statement.
   * '#{...}' represents python expression.
   * '${...}' represents python expression with escaping.

   And it provides the following features.
   * Layout template and nested template
   * Including other template files
   * Template caching
   * Capturing

   See help of tenjin.Template and tenjin.Engine for details.
"""

__revision__ = "$Rev: 137 $"[6:-2]
__release__  = "0.6.2"
__license__  = "MIT License"
__all__      = ['Template', 'Engine', 'helpers', 'html', ]


import re, sys, os, time, marshal


##
## utilities
##

try:
    import fcntl
    def _lock_file(file, content):
        fcntl.flock(file.fileno(), fcntl.LOCK_EX)
except ImportError, ex:
    try:
        import msvcrt
        def _lock_file(file, content):
            msvcrt.locking(file.fileno(), msvcrt.LK_LOCK, len(content))
    except ImportError, ex:
        def _lock_file(file, content):
            pass

def _write_file_with_lock(filename, content):
    f = None
    try:
        f = open(filename, 'wb')
        _lock_file(f, content)
        f.write(content)
    finally:
        if f:
            f.close()

def _create_module(module_name):
    """ex. mod = _create_module('tenjin.util')"""
    import new
    mod = new.module(module_name.split('.')[-1])
    sys.modules[module_name] = mod
    return mod



##
## helper method's module
##

def _create_helpers_module():

    def to_str(val):
        """Convert value into string. Return '' if val is None.
           ex.
             >>> to_str(None)
             ''
             >>> to_str("foo")
             'foo'
             >>> to_str(u"\u65e5\u672c\u8a9e")
             u'\u65e5\u672c\u8a9e'
             >>> to_str(123)
             '123'
        """
        if val is None:              return ''
        if isinstance(val, str):     return val
        if isinstance(val, unicode): return val
        return str(val)

    def generate_tostrfunc(encoding):
        """Generate 'to_str' function which encodes unicode to str.
           ex.
              import tenjin
              from tenjin.helpers import escape
              to_str = tenjin.generate_tostrfunc('utf-8')
              engine = tenjin.Engine()
              context = { 'items': [u'AAA', u'BBB', u'CCC'] }
              output = engine.render('example.pyhtml')
              print output
        """
        def to_str(val):
            if val is None:               return ''
            if isinstance(val, str):      return val
            if isinstance(val, unicode):  return val.encode(encoding)
            return str(val)
        return to_str

    def echo(string):
        """add string value into _buf. this is equivarent to '#{string}'."""
        frame = sys._getframe(1)
        context = frame.f_locals
        context['_buf'].append(string)

    def start_capture(varname=None):
        """
        start capturing with name.

        ex. list.rbhtml
          <html><body>
          <?py start_capture('itemlist') ?>
            <ul>
              <?py for item in list: ?>
              <li>${item}</li>
              <?py #end ?>
            </ul>
          <?py stop_capture() ?>
          </body></html>

        ex. layout.rbhtml
          <html xml:lang="en" lang="en">
           <head>
            <title>Capture Example</title>
           </head>
           <body>
            <!-- content -->
          #{itemlist}
            <!-- /content -->
           </body>
          </html>
        """
        frame = sys._getframe(1)
        context = frame.f_locals
        context['_buf_tmp'] = context['_buf']
        context['_capture_varname'] = varname
        context['_buf'] = []

    def stop_capture(store_to_context=True):
        """
        stop capturing and return the result of capturing.
        if store_to_context is True then the result is stored into _context[varname].
        """
        frame = sys._getframe(1)
        context = frame.f_locals
        result = ''.join(context['_buf'])
        context['_buf'] = context.pop('_buf_tmp')
        varname = context.pop('_capture_varname')
        if varname:
            context[varname] = result
            if store_to_context:
                context['_context'][varname] = result
        return result

    def captured_as(name):
        """
        helper method for layout template.
        if captured string is found then append it to _buf and return True,
        else return False.
        """
        frame = sys._getframe(1)
        context = frame.f_locals
        if context.has_key(name):
            _buf = context['_buf']
            _buf.append(context[name])
            return True
        return False

    def _p(arg):
        """ex. '/show/'+_p("item['id']") => "/show/#{item['id']}" """
        return '<`#%s#`>' % arg    # decoded into #{...} by preprocessor

    def _P(arg):
        """ex. '<b>%s</b>' % _P("item['id']") => "<b>${item['id']}</b>" """
        return '<`$%s$`>' % arg    # decoded into ${...} by preprocessor

    def _decode_params(s):
        """decode <`#...#`> and <`$...$`> into #{...} and ${...}"""
        from urllib import unquote
        dct = { 'lt':'<', 'gt':'>', 'amp':'&', 'quot':'"', '#039':"'", }
        def unescape(s):
            #return s.replace('<', '<').replace('>', '>').replace('&quot;', '"').replace('&#039;', "'").replace('&amp;',  '&')
            return re.sub(r'&(lt|gt|quot|amp|#039);',  lambda m: dct[m.group(1)],  s)
        s = re.sub(r'%3C%60%23(.*?)%23%60%3E', lambda m: '#{%s}' % unquote(m.group(1)), s)
        s = re.sub(r'%3C%60%24(.*?)%24%60%3E', lambda m: '${%s}' % unquote(m.group(1)), s)
        s = re.sub(r'<`#(.*?)#`>',   lambda m: '#{%s}' % unescape(m.group(1)), s)
        s = re.sub(r'<`\$(.*?)\$`>', lambda m: '${%s}' % unescape(m.group(1)), s)
        s = re.sub(r'<`#(.*?)#`>', r'#{\1}', s)
        s = re.sub(r'<`\$(.*?)\$`>', r'${\1}', s)
        return s

    mod = _create_module('tenjin.helpers')
    mod.to_str             = to_str
    mod.generate_tostrfunc = generate_tostrfunc
    mod.echo               = echo
    mod.start_capture      = start_capture
    mod.stop_capture       = stop_capture
    mod.captured_as        = captured_as
    mod._p                 = _p
    mod._P                 = _P
    mod._decode_params     = _decode_params
    mod.__all__ = ['escape', 'to_str', 'echo', 'generate_tostrfunc',
                   'start_capture', 'stop_capture', 'captured_as',
                   '_p', '_P', '_decode_params',
                   ]
    return mod

helpers = _create_helpers_module()
del _create_helpers_module
generate_tostrfunc = helpers.generate_tostrfunc



##
## module for html
##

def _create_html_module():

    to_str = helpers.to_str
    _escape_table = { '&': '&amp;', '<': '<', '>': '>', '"': '&quot;' }
    _escape_pattern = re.compile(r'[&<>"]')
    _escape_callable = lambda m: _escape_table[m.group(0)]

    def escape_xml(s):
        """Escape '&', '<', '>', '"' into '&amp;', '<', '>', '&quot;'.
        """
        return _escape_pattern.sub(_escape_callable, s)
        #return s.replace('&','&amp;').replace('<','<').replace('>','>').replace('"','&quot;')

    def tagattr(name, expr, value=None, escape=True):
        """return empty string when expr is false value, ' name="value"' when
           value is specified, or ' name="expr"' when value is None.
           ex.
           >>> tagattr('size', 20)
           ' size="20"'
           >>> tagattr('size', 0)
           ''
           >>> tagattr('checked', True, 'checked')
           ' checked="checked"'
           >>> tagattr('checked', False, 'checked')
           ''
           """
        if not expr:
            return ''
        if value is None:
            value = to_str(expr)
        else:
            value = to_str(value)
        if escape:
            value = escape_xml(value)
        return ' %s="%s"' % (name, value)

    def checked(expr):
        """return ' checked="checked"' if expr is true."""
        return expr and ' checked="checked"' or ''
        #return attr('checked', expr, 'checked')

    def selected(expr):
        """return ' selected="selected"' if expr is true."""
        return expr and ' selected="selected"' or ''
        #return attr('selected', expr, 'selected')

    def disabled(expr):
        """return ' disabled="disabled"' if expr is true."""
        return expr and ' disabled="disabled"' or ''
        #return attr('disabled, expr, 'disabled')

    def nl2br(text):
        """replace "\n" to "<br />\n" and return it."""
        if not text:
            return ''
        return text.replace('\n', '<br />\n')

    def text2html(text):
        """(experimental) escape xml characters, replace "\n" to "<br />\n", and return it."""
        if not text:
            return ''
        return nl2br(escape_xml(text).replace('  ', ' &nbsp;'))

    mod = _create_module('tenjin.helpers.html')
    mod._escape_table = _escape_table
    mod.escape_xml = escape_xml
    mod.escape     = escape_xml
    mod.tagattr    = tagattr
    mod.checked    = checked
    mod.selected   = selected
    mod.disabled   = disabled
    mod.nl2br      = nl2br
    mod.text2html  = text2html
    return mod

helpers.html = _create_html_module()
del _create_html_module

helpers.escape = helpers.html.escape_xml



##
## Template class
##

class Template(object):
    """Convert and evaluate embedded python string.

       Notation:
       * '<?py ... ?>' means python statement code.
       * '#{...}' means python expression code.
       * '${...}' means python escaped expression code.

       ex. example.pyhtml
         <table>
         <?py is_odd = False ?>
         <?py for item in items: ?>
         <?py     is_oddd = not is_odd ?>
         <?py     color = is_odd and '#FFF' or '#FCF' ?>
          <tr bgcolor="#{color}">
           <td>${item}</td>
          </tr>
         <?py #end ?>
         </table>

       ex.
         >>> filename = 'example.pyhtml'
         >>> import tenjin
         >>> from tenjin.helpers import escape, to_str
         >>> template = tenjin.Template(filename)
         >>> script = template.script
         >>> ## or
         >>> #template = tenjin.Template()
         >>> #script = template.convert_file(filename)
         >>> ## or
         >>> #template = tenjin.Template()
         >>> #input = open(filename).read()
         >>> #script = template.convert(input, filename)  # filename is optional
         >>> print script
         >>> context = {'items': ['<foo>','bar&bar','"baz"']}
         >>> output = template.render(context)
         >>> print output
         <table>
          <tr bgcolor="#FFF">
           <td><foo></td>
          </tr>
          <tr bgcolor="#FCF">
           <td>bar&amp;bar</td>
          </tr>
          <tr bgcolor="#FFF">
           <td>&quot;baz&quot;</td>
          </tr>
         </table>
    """

    ## default value of attributes
    filename   = None
    encoding   = None
    escapefunc = 'escape'
    tostrfunc  = 'to_str'
    indent     = 4
    preamble   = None
    postamble  = None    # "_buf = []"
    smarttrim  = None    # "print ''.join(_buf)"
    args       = None

    def __init__(self, filename=None, encoding=None, escapefunc=None, tostrfunc=None, indent=None, preamble=None, postamble=None, smarttrim=None):
        """Initailizer of Template class.

           filename:str (=None)
             Filename to convert (optional). If None, no convert.
           encoding:str (=None)
             Encoding name. If specified, template string is converted into
             unicode object internally.
             Template.render() returns str object if encoding is None,
             else returns unicode object if encoding name is specified.
           escapefunc:str (='escape')
             Escape function name.
           tostrfunc:str (='to_str')
             'to_str' function name.
           indent:int (=4)
             Indent width.
           preamble:str or bool (=None)
             Preamble string which is inserted into python code.
             If true, '_buf = []' is used insated.
           postamble:str or bool (=None)
             Postamble string which is appended to python code.
             If true, 'print "".join(_buf)' is used instead.
           smarttrim:bool (=None)
             If True then "<div>\\n#{_context}\\n</div>" is parsed as
             "<div>\\n#{_context}</div>".
        """
        if encoding   is not None:  self.encoding   = encoding
        if escapefunc is not None:  self.escapefunc = escapefunc
        if tostrfunc  is not None:  self.tostrfunc  = tostrfunc
        if indent     is not None:  self.indent     = indent
        if preamble   is not None:  self.preamble   = preamble
        if postamble  is not None:  self.postamble  = postamble
        if smarttrim  is not None:  self.smarttrim  = smarttrim
        #
        if preamble  is True:  self.preamble = "_buf = []"
        if postamble is True:  self.postamble = "print ''.join(_buf)"
        if filename:
            self.convert_file(filename)
        else:
            self._reset()

    def _reset(self, input=None, filename=None):
        self._spaces  = ''
        self.script   = None
        self.bytecode = None
        self.input    = input
        self.filename = filename
        if input != None:
            i = input.find("\n")
            if i < 0:
                self.newline = "\n"   # or None
            elif len(input) >= 2 and input[i-1] == "\r":
                self.newline = "\r\n"
            else:
                self.newline = "\n"

    def before_convert(self, buf):
        #buf.append('_buf = []; ')
        if self.preamble:
            buf.append(self.preamble)
            buf.append(self.input.startswith('<?py') and "\n" or "; ")

    def after_convert(self, buf):
        if self.postamble:
            if not buf[-1].endswith("\n"):
                buf.append("\n")
            buf.append(self.postamble + "\n")

    def convert_file(self, filename):
        """Convert file into python script and return it.
           This is equivarent to convert(open(filename).read(), filename).
        """
        input = open(filename, 'rb').read()
        return self.convert(input, filename)

    def convert(self, input, filename=None):
        """Convert string in which python code is embedded into python script and return it.

           input:str
             Input string to convert into python code.
           filename:str (=None)
             Filename of input. this is optional but recommended to report errors.

           ex.
             >>> import tenjin
             >>> from tenjin.helpers import escape, to_str
             >>> template = tenjin.Template()
             >>> filename = 'example.html'
             >>> input = open(filename).read()
             >>> script = template.convert(input, filename)   # filename is optional
             >>> print script
        """
        if self.encoding and isinstance(input, str):
            input = input.decode(self.encoding)
        self._reset(input, filename)
        buf = []
        self.before_convert(buf)
        self.parse_stmts(buf, input)
        self.after_convert(buf)
        script = ''.join(buf)
        self.script = script
        return script

    def compile_stmt_pattern(pi):
        return re.compile(r'<\?%s( |\t|\r?\n)(.*?) ?\?>([ \t]*\r?\n)?' % pi, re.S)

    STMT_PATTERN = compile_stmt_pattern('py')

    compile_stmt_pattern = staticmethod(compile_stmt_pattern)

    def stmt_pattern(self):
        return Template.STMT_PATTERN

    def parse_stmts(self, buf, input):
        if not input:
            return
        rexp = self.stmt_pattern()
        is_bol = True
        index = 0
        for m in rexp.finditer(input):
            mspace, code, rspace = m.groups()
            #mspace, close, rspace = m.groups()
            #code = input[m.start()+4+len(mspace):m.end()-len(close)-(rspace and len(rspace) or 0)]
            text = input[index:m.start()]
            index = m.end()
            ## detect spaces at beginning of line
            lspace = None
            if text == '':
                if is_bol:
                    lspace = ''
            elif text[-1] == '\n':
                lspace = ''
            else:
                rindex = text.rfind('\n')
                if rindex < 0:
                    if is_bol and text.isspace():
                        lspace = text
                        text = ''
                else:
                    s = text[rindex+1:]
                    if s.isspace():
                        lspace = s
                        text = text[:rindex+1]
            #is_bol = rspace is not None
            ## add text, spaces, and statement
            self.parse_exprs(buf, text, is_bol)
            is_bol = rspace is not None
            if lspace:
                buf.append(lspace)
            if mspace != " ":
                #buf.append(mspace)
                buf.append(mspace == "\t" and "\t" or "\n")  # don't append "\r\n"!
            if code:
                code = self.statement_hook(code)
                self.add_stmt(buf, code)
            self._set_spaces(code, lspace, mspace)
            if rspace:
                #buf.append(rspace)
                buf.append("\n")    # don't append "\r\n"!
        rest = input[index:]
        if rest:
            self.parse_exprs(buf, rest)

    def statement_hook(self, stmt):
        """expand macros and parse '#@ARGS' in a statement."""
        ## macro expantion
        #macro_pattern = r'^(\s*)(\w+)\((.*?)\);?\s*$';
        #m = re.match(macro_pattern, stmt)
        #if m:
        #    lspace, name, arg = m.group(1), m.group(2), m.group(3)
        #    handler = self.get_macro_handler(name)
        #    return handler is None and stmt or lspace + handler(arg)
        ## arguments declaration
        if self.args is None:
            args_pattern = r'^ *#@ARGS(?:[ \t]+(.*?))?$'
            m = re.match(args_pattern, stmt)
            if m:
                arr = (m.group(1) or '').split(',')
                args = [];  declares = []
                for s in arr:
                    arg = s.strip()
                    if not s: continue
                    if not re.match('^[a-zA-Z_]\w*$', arg):
                        raise ValueError("%s: invalid template argument." % arg)
                    args.append(arg)
                    declares.append("%s = _context.get('%s'); " % (arg, arg))
                self.args = args
                return ''.join(declares)
        ##
        return stmt

    #MACRO_HANDLER_TABLE = {
    #    "echo":
    #        lambda arg: "_buf.append(%s); " % arg,
    #    "include":
    #        lambda arg: "_buf.append(_context['_engine'].render(%s, _context, layout=False)); " % arg,
    #    "start_capture":
    #        lambda arg: "_buf_bkup = _buf; _buf = []; _capture_varname = %s; " % arg,
    #    "stop_capture":
    #        lambda arg: "_context[_capture_varname] = ''.join(_buf); _buf = _buf_bkup; ",
    #    "start_placeholder":
    #        lambda arg: "if (_context[%s]) _buf.push(_context[%s]); else:" % (arg, arg),
    #    "stop_placeholder":
    #        lambda arg: "#endif",
    #}
    #
    #def get_macro_handler(name):
    #    return MACRO_HANDLER_TABLE.get(name)

    EXPR_PATTERN = re.compile(r'([#$])\{(.*?)\}', re.S)

    def expr_pattern(self):
        return Template.EXPR_PATTERN

    def get_expr_and_escapeflag(self, match):
        return match.group(2), match.group(1) == '$'

    def parse_exprs(self, buf, input, is_bol=False):
        if not input:
            return
        if self._spaces:
            buf.append(self._spaces)
        self.start_text_part(buf)
        rexp = self.expr_pattern()
        smarttrim = self.smarttrim
        nl = self.newline
        nl_len  = len(nl)
        pos = 0
        for m in rexp.finditer(input):
            start  = m.start()
            text   = input[pos:start]
            pos    = m.end()
            expr, flag_escape = self.get_expr_and_escapeflag(m)
            #
            if text:
                self.add_text(buf, text)
                #if text[-1] == "\n":
                #    buf.append("\n")
                #    if self._spaces:
                #        buf.append(self._spaces)
            self.add_expr(buf, expr, flag_escape)
            #
            if smarttrim:
                flag_bol = text.endswith(nl) or not text and (start > 0  or is_bol)
                if flag_bol and not flag_escape and input[pos:pos+nl_len] == nl:
                    pos += nl_len
                    buf.append("\n")
        if smarttrim:
            if buf and buf[-1] == "\n":
                buf.pop()
        rest = input[pos:]
        if rest:
            self.add_text(buf, rest, True)
        self.stop_text_part(buf)
        if input[-1] == '\n':
            buf.append("\n")

    def start_text_part(self, buf):
        buf.append("_buf.extend((")

    def stop_text_part(self, buf):
        buf.append("));")

    _quote_rexp = re.compile(r"(['\\\\])")

    def add_text(self, buf, text, encode_newline=False):
        if not text:
            return;
        if self.encoding:
            buf.append("u'''")
        else:
            buf.append("'''")
        #text = re.sub(r"(['\\\\])", r"\\\1", text)
        text = Template._quote_rexp.sub(r"\\\1", text)
        if not encode_newline or text[-1] != "\n":
            buf.append(text)
            buf.append("''', ")
        elif len(text) >= 2 and text[-2] == "\r":
            buf.append(text[0:-2])
            buf.append("\\r\\n''', ")
        else:
            buf.append(text[0:-1])
            buf.append("\\n''', ")

    _add_text = add_text

    def add_expr(self, buf, code, flag_escape=None):
        if not code or code.isspace():
            return
        if flag_escape is None:
            buf.append(code); buf.append(", ");
        elif flag_escape is False:
            buf.extend((self.tostrfunc, "(", code, "), "))
        else:
            buf.extend((self.escapefunc, "(", self.tostrfunc, "(", code, ")), "))

    def add_stmt(self, buf, code):
        if self.newline == "\r\n":
            code = code.replace("\r\n", "\n")
        buf.append(code)
        #if code[-1] != '\n':
        #    buf.append(self.newline)

    def _set_spaces(self, code, lspace, mspace):
        if lspace:
            if mspace == " ":
                code = lspace + code
            elif mspace == "\t":
                code = lspace + "\t" + code
        #i = code.rstrip().rfind("\n")
        #if i < 0:   # i == -1
        #    i = 0
        #else:
        #    i += 1
        i = code.rstrip().rfind("\n") + 1
        indent = 0
        n = len(code)
        ch = None
        while i < n:
            ch = code[i]
            if   ch == " ":   indent += 1
            elif ch == "\t":  indent += 8
            else:  break
            i += 1
        if ch:
            if code.rstrip()[-1] == ':':
                indent += self.indent
            self._spaces = ' ' * indent

    def render(self, context=None, globals=None, _buf=None):
        """Evaluate python code with context dictionary.
           If _buf is None then return the result of evaluation as str,
           else return None.

           context:dict (=None)
             Context object to evaluate. If None then new dict is created.
           globals:dict (=None)
             Global object. If None then globals() is used.
           _buf:list (=None)
             If None then new list is created.

           ex.
             >>> import tenjin
             >>> from tenjin.helpers import escape, to_str
             >>> template = tenjin.Template('example.pyhtml')
             >>> context = {'items': ['foo','bar','baz'], 'title': 'example'}
             >>> output = template.evaluate(context)
             >>> print output,
        """
        if context is None:
            locals = context = {}
        elif self.args is None:
            locals = context.copy()
        else:
            locals = {}
            if context.has_key('_engine'):
                context.get('_engine').hook_context(locals)
        locals['_context'] = context
        if globals is None:
            globals = sys._getframe(1).f_globals
        bufarg = _buf
        if _buf is None:
            _buf = []
        locals['_buf'] = _buf
        if not self.bytecode:
            self.compile()
        exec self.bytecode in globals, locals
        if bufarg is None:
            s = ''.join(_buf)
            #if self.encoding:
            #    s = s.encode(self.encoding)
            return s
        else:
            return None

    def compile(self):
        """compile self.script into self.bytecode"""
        self.bytecode = compile(self.script, self.filename or '(tenjin)', 'exec')


##
## preprocessor class
##

class Preprocessor(Template):

    STMT_PATTERN = Template.compile_stmt_pattern('PY')

    def stmt_pattern(self):
        return Preprocessor.STMT_PATTERN

    EXPR_PATTERN = re.compile(r'([#$])\{\{(.*?)\}\}', re.S)

    def expr_pattern(self):
        return Preprocessor.EXPR_PATTERN

    #def get_expr_and_escapeflag(self, match):
    #    return match.group(2), match.group(1) == '$'

    def add_expr(self, buf, code, flag_escape=None):
        if not code or code.isspace():
            return
        code = "_decode_params(%s)" % code
        Template.add_expr(self, buf, code, flag_escape)


##
## template engine class
##

class Engine(object):
    """Engine class of templates.

       ex.
         >>> ## create engine
         >>> import tenjin
         >>> from tenjin.helpers import *
         >>> prefix = 'user_'
         >>> postfix = '.pyhtml'
         >>> layout = 'layout.pyhtml'
         >>> path = ['views']
         >>> engine = tenjin.Engine(prefix=prefix, postfix=postfix,
         ...                        layout=layout, path=path, encoding='utf-8')
         >>> ## evaluate template(='views/user_create.pyhtml') with context object.
         >>> ## (layout template (='views/layout.pyhtml') are used.)
         >>> context = {'title': 'Create User', 'user': user}
         >>> print engine.render(':create', context)
         >>> ## evaluate template without layout template.
         >>> print engine.render(':create', context, layout=False)

       In template file, the followings are available.
       * include(template_name, append_to_buf=True) :
            Include other template
       * _content :
            Result of evaluating template (available only in layout file).

       ex. file 'layout.pyhtml':
         <html>
          <body>
           <div class="sidemenu">
         <?py include(':sidemenu') ?>
           </div>
           <div class="maincontent">
         #{_content}
           </div>
          </body>
         </html>
    """

    ## default value of attributes
    prefix     = ''
    postfix    = ''
    layout     = None
    templateclass = Template
    path       = None
    cache      = True
    preprocess = False

    def __init__(self, prefix=None, postfix=None, layout=None, path=None, cache=None, preprocess=None, templateclass=None, **kwargs):
        """Initializer of Engine class.

           prefix:str (='')
             Prefix string used to convert template short name to template filename.
           postfix:str (='')
             Postfix string used to convert template short name to template filename.
           layout:str (=None)
             Default layout template name.
           path:list of str(=None)
             List of directory names which contain template files.
           cache:bool (=True)
             Cache converted python code into file.
           preprocess:bool(=False)
             Activate preprocessing or not.
           templateclass:class (=Template)
             Template class which engine creates automatically.
           kwargs:dict
             Options for Template class constructor.
             See document of Template.__init__() for details.
        """
        if prefix:  self.prefix = prefix
        if postfix: self.postfix = postfix
        if layout:  self.layout = layout
        if templateclass: self.templateclass = templateclass
        if path  is not None:  self.path = path
        if cache is not None:  self.cache = cache
        if preprocess is not None: self.preprocess = preprocess
        self.kwargs = kwargs
        self.templates = {}   # template_name => Template object

    def to_filename(self, template_name):
        """Convert template short name to filename.
           ex.
             >>> engine = tenjin.Engine(prefix='user_', postfix='.pyhtml')
             >>> engine.to_filename('list')
             'list'
             >>> engine.to_filename(':list')
             'user_list.pyhtml'
        """
        if template_name[0] == ':' :
            return self.prefix + template_name[1:] + self.postfix
        return template_name

    def find_template_file(self, template_name):
        """Find template file and return it's filename.
           When template file is not found, IOError is raised.
        """
        filename = self.to_filename(template_name)
        if self.path:
            for dirname in self.path:
                filepath = dirname + os.path.sep + filename
                if os.path.isfile(filepath):
                    return filepath
        else:
            if os.path.isfile(filename):
                return filename
        raise IOError('%s: filename not found (path=%s).' % (filename, repr(self.path)))

    def register_template(self, template_name, template):
        """Register an template object."""
        if not hasattr(template, 'timestamp'):
            template.timestamp = None  # or time.time()
        self.templates[template_name] = template

    def load_cachefile(self, cache_filename, template):
        """load marshaled cache file"""
        #template.bytecode = marshal.load(open(cache_filename, 'rb'))
        dct = marshal.load(open(cache_filename, 'rb'))
        template.args     = dct['args']
        template.script   = dct['script']
        template.bytecode = dct['bytecode']

    def _load_cachefile_for_script(self, cache_filename, template):
        s = open(cache_filename).read()
        if s.startswith('#@ARGS '):
            pos = s.find("\n")
            args_str = s[len('#@ARGS '):pos]
            template.args = args_str and args_str.split(', ') or []
            s = s[pos+1:]
        else:
            template.args = None
        if template.encoding:
            #s = s.decode(template.encoding)
            s = s.decode('utf-8')
        template.script = s
        template.compile()

    def store_cachefile(self, cache_filename, template):
        """store template into marshal file"""
        dct = { 'args':     template.args,
                'script':  template.script,
                'bytecode': template.bytecode }
        _write_file_with_lock(cache_filename, marshal.dumps(dct))

    def _store_cachefile_for_script(self, cache_filename, template):
        s = template.script
        if template.encoding and isinstance(s, unicode):
            s = s.encode(template.encoding)
            #s = s.encode('utf-8')
        if template.args is not None:
            s = "#@ARGS %s\n%s" % (', '.join(template.args), s)
        _write_file_with_lock(cache_filename, s)

    def cachename(self, filename):
        return filename + '.cache'

    def create_template(self, filename, _context, _globals):
        """Read template file and create template object."""
        template = self.templateclass(None, **self.kwargs)
        template.timestamp = time.time()
        cache_filename = self.cachename(filename)
        getmtime = os.path.getmtime
        if not self.cache:
            input = self.read_template_file(filename, _context, _globals)
            template.convert(input, filename)
            #template.compile()
        elif os.path.exists(cache_filename) and getmtime(cache_filename) >= getmtime(filename):
            #Tenjin.logger.info("** debug: %s: cache found." % filename)
            template.filename = filename
            self.load_cachefile(cache_filename, template)
            if template.bytecode is None:
                template.compile()
        else:
            #Tenjin.logger.info("** debug: %s: cache not found." % filename)
            input = self.read_template_file(filename, _context, _globals)
            template.convert(input, filename)
            template.compile()
            self.store_cachefile(cache_filename, template)
        return template

    def read_template_file(self, filename, _context, _globals):
        if not self.preprocess:
            return open(filename).read()
        if _context is None:
            _context = {}
        if not _context.has_key('_engine'):
            self.hook_context(_context)
        if _globals is None:
            _globals = sys._getframe(2).f_globals
        preprocessor = Preprocessor(filename)
        return preprocessor.render(_context, globals=_globals)

    def get_template(self, template_name, _context=None, _globals=None):
        """Return template object.
           If template object has not registered, template engine creates
           and registers template object automatically.
        """
        template = self.templates.get(template_name)
        t = template
        if t is None or t.timestamp and t.filename and t.timestamp < os.path.getmtime(t.filename):
            filename = self.find_template_file(template_name)
            # context and globals are passed only for preprocessing
            if _globals is None:
                _globals = sys._getframe(1).f_globals
            template = self.create_template(filename, _context, _globals)
            self.register_template(template_name, template)
        return template

    def include(self, template_name, append_to_buf=True):
        """Evaluate template using current local variables as context.

           template_name:str
             Filename (ex. 'user_list.pyhtml') or short name (ex. ':list') of template.
           append_to_buf:boolean (=True)
             If True then append output into _buf and return None,
             else return stirng output.

           ex.
             <?py include('file.pyhtml') ?>
             #{include('file.pyhtml', False)}
             <?py val = include('file.pyhtml', False) ?>
        """
        frame = sys._getframe(1)
        locals  = frame.f_locals
        globals = frame.f_globals
        assert locals.has_key('_context')
        context = locals['_context']
        # context and globals are passed to get_template() only for preprocessing.
        template = self.get_template(template_name, context, globals)
        if append_to_buf:
            _buf = locals['_buf']
        else:
            _buf = None
        return template.render(context, globals, _buf=_buf)

    def render(self, template_name, context=None, globals=None, layout=True):
        """Evaluate template with layout file and return result of evaluation.

           template_name:str
             Filename (ex. 'user_list.pyhtml') or short name (ex. ':list') of template.
           context:dict (=None)
             Context object to evaluate. If None then new dict is used.
           globals:dict (=None)
             Global context to evaluate. If None then globals() is used.
           layout:str or Bool(=True)
             If True, the default layout name specified in constructor is used.
             If False, no layout template is used.
             If str, it is regarded as layout template name.

           If temlate object related with the 'template_name' argument is not exist,
           engine generates a template object and register it automatically.
        """
        if context is None:
            context = {}
        if globals is None:
            globals = sys._getframe(1).f_globals
        self.hook_context(context)
        while True:
            # context and globals are passed to get_template() only for preprocessing
            template = self.get_template(template_name,  context, globals)
            content  = template.render(context, globals)
            layout   = context.pop('_layout', layout)
            if layout is True or layout is None:
                layout = self.layout
            if not layout:
                break
            template_name = layout
            layout = False
            context['_content'] = content
        context.pop('_content', None)
        return content

    def hook_context(self, context):
        context['_engine'] = self
        #context['render'] = self.render
        context['include'] = self.include