Custom Query class for Oracle.
Derives from: django.db.models.sql.query.Query

import datetime

from django.db.backends import util

# Cache. Maps default query class to new Oracle query class.
_classes = {}

def query_class(QueryClass, Database):
    Returns a custom django.db.models.sql.query.Query subclass that is
    appropriate for Oracle.

    The 'Database' module (cx_Oracle) is passed in here so that all the setup
    required to import it only needs to be done by the calling module.
    global _classes
        return _classes[QueryClass]
    except KeyError:

    class OracleQuery(QueryClass):
        def resolve_columns(self, row, fields=()):
            index_start = len(self.extra_select.keys())
            values = [self.convert_values(v, None) for v in row[:index_start]]
            for value, field in map(None, row[index_start:], fields):
                values.append(self.convert_values(value, field))
            return values

        def convert_values(self, value, field):
            from django.db.models.fields import DateField, DateTimeField, \
                 TimeField, BooleanField, NullBooleanField, DecimalField, Field
            if isinstance(value, Database.LOB):
                value = value.read()
            # Oracle stores empty strings as null. We need to undo this in
            # order to adhere to the Django convention of using the empty
            # string instead of null, but only if the field accepts the
            # empty string.
            if value is None and isinstance(field, Field) and field.empty_strings_allowed:
                value = u''
            # Convert 1 or 0 to True or False
            elif value in (1, 0) and isinstance(field, (BooleanField, NullBooleanField)):
                value = bool(value)
            # Convert floats to decimals
            elif value is not None and isinstance(field, DecimalField):
                value = util.typecast_decimal(field.format_number(value))
            # cx_Oracle always returns datetime.datetime objects for
            # DATE and TIMESTAMP columns, but Django wants to see a
            # python datetime.date, .time, or .datetime.  We use the type
            # of the Field to determine which to cast to, but it's not
            # always available.
            # As a workaround, we cast to date if all the time-related
            # values are 0, or to time if the date is 1/1/1900.
            # This could be cleaned a bit by adding a method to the Field
            # classes to normalize values from the database (the to_python
            # method is used for validation and isn't what we want here).
            elif isinstance(value, Database.Timestamp):
                # In Python 2.3, the cx_Oracle driver returns its own
                # Timestamp object that we must convert to a datetime class.
                if not isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
                    value = datetime.datetime(value.year, value.month,
                            value.day, value.hour, value.minute, value.second,
                if isinstance(field, DateTimeField):
                    # DateTimeField subclasses DateField so must be checked
                    # first.
                elif isinstance(field, DateField):
                    value = value.date()
                elif isinstance(field, TimeField) or (value.year == 1900 and value.month == value.day == 1):
                    value = value.time()
                elif value.hour == value.minute == value.second == value.microsecond == 0:
                    value = value.date()
            return value

        def as_sql(self, with_limits=True, with_col_aliases=False):
            Creates the SQL for this query. Returns the SQL string and list
            of parameters.  This is overriden from the original Query class
            to accommodate Oracle's limit/offset SQL.

            If 'with_limits' is False, any limit/offset information is not
            included in the query.
            # The `do_offset` flag indicates whether we need to construct
            # the SQL needed to use limit/offset w/Oracle.
            do_offset = with_limits and (self.high_mark or self.low_mark)

            # If no offsets, just return the result of the base class
            # `as_sql`.
            if not do_offset:
                return super(OracleQuery, self).as_sql(with_limits=False,

            # `get_columns` needs to be called before `get_ordering` to
            # populate `_select_alias`.
            out_cols = self.get_columns()
            ordering = self.get_ordering()

            # Getting the "ORDER BY" SQL for the ROW_NUMBER() result.
            if ordering:
                rn_orderby = ', '.join(ordering)
                # Oracle's ROW_NUMBER() function always requires an
                # order-by clause.  So we need to define a default
                # order-by, since none was provided.
                qn = self.quote_name_unless_alias
                opts = self.model._meta
                rn_orderby = '%s.%s' % (qn(opts.db_table), qn(opts.fields[0].db_column or opts.fields[0].column))

            # Getting the selection SQL and the params, which has the `rn`
            # extra selection SQL.
            self.extra_select['rn'] = 'ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY %s )' % rn_orderby
            sql, params= super(OracleQuery, self).as_sql(with_limits=False,

            # Constructing the result SQL, using the initial select SQL
            # obtained above.
            result = ['SELECT * FROM (%s)' % sql]

            # Place WHERE condition on `rn` for the desired range.
            result.append('WHERE rn > %d' % self.low_mark)
            if self.high_mark:
                result.append('AND rn <= %d' % self.high_mark)

            # Returning the SQL w/params.
            return ' '.join(result), params

        def set_limits(self, low=None, high=None):
            super(OracleQuery, self).set_limits(low, high)

            # We need to select the row number for the LIMIT/OFFSET sql.
            # A placeholder is added to extra_select now, because as_sql is
            # too late to be modifying extra_select.  However, the actual sql
            # depends on the ordering, so that is generated in as_sql.
            self.extra_select['rn'] = '1'

        def clear_limits(self):
            super(OracleQuery, self).clear_limits()
            if 'rn' in self.extra_select:
                del self.extra_select['rn']

    _classes[QueryClass] = OracleQuery
    return OracleQuery